Causes. Clubfoot is mainly caused by genetics. However, research has shown that a woman who smokes, consumes alcohol, or takes illicit drugs while she is pregnant is more likely to have a baby who is born with this condition. Sometimes, other fetal abnormalities or illnesses may contribute to clubfoot as well though, such as hip dysplasia or spina bifida. Doctors often check for these types of conditions whenever a woman receives prenatal care though. So they can often see if the baby has clubfoot when they perform a routine sonogram or other types of imaging.