Bladder infections are common and are referred to as cystitis. This is when bacteria managed to make its way through the urinary tract to the bladder and cause an infection directly in the bladder. They are also commonly referred to as a urinary tract infections, though that can refer to any infection that occurs in the bladder, kidneys, ureters or also in the urethra.
Most bladder infections will come upon you quickly. These are referred to as acute infections. Conversely, there are long term or chronic infections. These infections can last longer and tend to recur over and over again. The most important thing with either infection is getting quick treatment so that it can be handled as quickly and efficiently as possible.